Environmental-geological study of the marshes of southern Iraq

Under the auspices of the chancellor of the University, Prof. Dr. Hassan al-Awadi, Al-Qasim Green University held a seminar entitled (environmental-geological study of the marshes of southern Iraq) lectured by Prof. Dr. Karim Al-Mershedi and Prof. Dr. Ali Hassan Al-Timimi, as well as elite professors of the university.

1. Marshes features: the marshes of southern Iraq, and the surrounding areas, are rich of freshwater environment. It has been undergone for drying during the last decade of the 20th century.

2. Drying methods: drying methods have benefited from the previous hydraulic facilities built on the path of the Tigris and Euphrates, like the Indian dam on the Euphrates, and Al-Kut dam on Tigris, and the earthen dam built on the towns near the city of Qurna and Hammar Marsh.

3. The current existing study has described and tried to assess the morphological status of the territory of the marshes of southern Iraq.

4. In the preliminary analyzes of soil properties, there observed an increase in the concentration of organic material and calcium carbonate, and the value of electric conductivity and soil ph. The study has also noted a decrease in the value of the deteriorating environmental situation as a result of drying processes and the tectonic and morphological status of the area.

5. The deliberate for the region, culturally, socially, and industrially.

6. The southern marsh areas of Iraq are regarded as one of the most environmentally affluent regions. Despite underdevelopment, the marshes are characterized with the availability of water and the validity of climate for the cultivation of crops and vegetables.

7. The marshes are also regarded as a natural environment for raising buffalo which cannot easily live in any other areas. And there has been tens of thousands of these animals. However, it has been severely damaged due to the draining of the marshes.

8. Fish is regarded as one of the most important elements of the animal livestock in the marsh area and features multiple kinds and abundance is also considered a source of income for many fishermen who live there.

9. The marshes of southern Iraq are regarded as one of the most important environments for birds broodings, domicile, and migration from different regions of the world such as cold Siberia and northern Europe, especially during wintertime and spring days. The marshes include the most important rare birds of this great wealth.

10. In addition to the above, the marshes of the south contain a great wealth of papyrus reeds and the Golan, which were used for manufacturing various carpets, as well as some of its food is rich for animals, as these substances are considered pulp for the paper industry.

11. Marshes occupy a large proportion of the southern part of the sedimentary Iraq's easy space which is the area between the city of Amara, from the north, and Basra in the south and east, Souk Al-Shoyokh from the west (Figure 1) of marsh area of about 20,000 km. (USAID, 2003) Mechanical.

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